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A combat engineer (also called field engineer, pioneer or sapper) in many armies is a soldier specialist who performs a variety of military engineering, mining, construction and demolition tasks under combat conditions.
The combat engineer's goals involve facilitating movement and support of friendly forces while impeding those of the enemy. Combat engineers build fighting positions, fortifications, logistics and roads. They conduct demolitions missions and clear minefields manually or through use of specialized vehicles. Typical combat engineer missions include construction and breaching of trenches, tank traps and other obstacles and fortifications; obstacle emplacement and bunker construction; bridge and road construction or destruction; emplacement and clearance of land mines; and combined arms breaching. Typically, a combat engineer is also trained as an infantryman, and combat engineer units frequently fight alongside the infantry or fight as infantry as a secondary mission.
A general combat engineer is often called a pioneer or sapper, terms derived respectively from the French and British armies. In some armies, pioneer and sapper indicate specific military ranks and levels of combat engineers, who work under fire in all seasons and may be allocated to different corps, as they were in the former Soviet Army, or they may be organized in the same corps. Geomatics (surveying and cartography) is another area of military engineering but is often performed by the combat engineers of some nations and in other cases is a separate responsibility, as was formerly the case in the Australian Army. While the officers of a combat engineer unit may be professionally certified civil or mechanical engineers, the non-commissioned members are generally not.
- In the British, Indian, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand armies, a sapper is a soldier who has specialized combat engineer training. The term "sapper" in the U.S. Army refers to a person who either possesses the combat engineer military occupational specialty or who has graduated from the Sapper Leader Course, more commonly called "Sapper School." In Sapper School, volunteers from the ranks of combat engineers and other military occupational specialties (most of whom serve in the combat arms) undergo training in combat engineer and infantry battle drills, expedient demolitions, threat weapons, unarmed combat, mountaineering, and water operations. Some of the training in this 28-day course, arguably one of the most challenging in the U.S. Army, features covert infiltration techniques or survival skills.
- In the Israeli Defence Forces, Sapper (פלס) is a military profession code denoting a combat engineer who has graduated from various levels of combat engineering training. Sapper 05 is the basic level, Sapper 06 is the general level, Sapper 08 is the combat engineer commander's level and Sapper 11 is the combat engineer officer level. All IDF sappers are also trained as Rifleman 07, matching infantry.
- In the Canadian Army, is a term for soldiers that have completed the basic Combat Engineer training.
- In the Portuguese Army, a sapador de engenharia (engineering sapper) is a soldier of the engineering branch that has specialized combat engineer training. A sapador de infantaria (infantry sapper) is a soldier of the infantry branch that has a similar training and that usually serves in the combat support sapper platoon of an infantry battalion.
- The Italian Army uses the term "Guastatori" for their combat engineers.
- In the Finnish army, pioneeri is the private equivalent rank in the army for a soldier who has completed the basic combat engineering training. Naval engineers retain the rank matruusi but bear the pioneeri insignia on their sleeves.
- The German Bundeswehr uses the term "Pionier" for their combat engineers and other specialized units, who are associated with Special Forces to clear obstacles and perform engineering duties. Also the combat engineers in the Austro-Hungarian k.u.k. Forces were called "Pioniere".
- Assault pioneer:
- In the British, Canadian, Australian and New Zealand armies, an assault pioneer is an infantry soldier with some limited combat engineer training in clearing obstacles during assaults and light engineering duties. Until recently, assault pioneers were responsible for the operation of flamethrowers.
- Field engineer:
- is a term used (or formerly used) in many Commonwealth armies. In modern usage, it is often synonymous with "combat engineer". However, the term originally identified those military engineers who supported an army operating in the field as opposed to garrison engineers who built and supported permanent fixed bases. In its original usage, "field engineering" would have been inclusive of but broader than "combat engineering."
Practices and techniques
Combat engineers are force multipliers and enhance the survival of other troops through the use and practice of camouflage, reconnaissance, communications and other services. These include the construction of roads, bridges, field fortifications, obstacles and the construction and running of water points. In these roles, combat engineers use a wide variety of hand and power tools. They are also responsible for construction rigging, the use of explosives, and the carrying out of demolitions, obstacle clearance, and obstacle construction, assault of fortifications, use of assault boats in water obstacle crossings, helipad construction, general construction, route reconnaissance and road reconnaissance, and erecting communication installations. Combat engineers build and run water distribution points, carrying out water filtration, and NBC decontamination when necessary, and storage prior to distribution.
All these role activities and technologies are divided into several areas of combat engineering:
Mobility Improving the ability of one's own force to move around the battlefield. Combat engineers typically support this role through reduction of enemy obstacles which include point and row minefields, anti-tank ditches, wire obstacles, concrete and metal anti-vehicle barriers, and Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) and wall and door breaching in urban terrain. Mechanized combat engineer units also have armored vehicles capable of laying short bridges for limited gap-crossing.
- Clearing terrain obstacles
- Overcoming trenches and ditches
- Opening routes for armored fighting vehicles
- Constructing roads and bridges
- Route clearance
Countermobility Building obstacles to prevent the enemy from moving around the battlefield. Destroying bridges, blocking roads, creating airstrips, digging trenches, etc. Can also include planting land mines and anti-handling devices when authorized and directed to do so.
When the defender must retreat it is often desirable to destroy anything that may be of use to the enemy, particularly bridges, as their destruction can slow the advance of the attackers. The retreating forces may also leave booby traps for enemy soldiers, even though these often wreak their havoc upon non-combatant civilians.
- Planting land mines
- Digging trenches and ditches
- Demolishing roads and bridges
- Clearing fields of land mines
- Opening routes during assault
- Demolishing enemy structures (using bulldozers or explosive charges).
Defense structures Building structures which enable one's own soldiers to survive on the battlefield. Examples include trenches, bunkers, shelters, and armored vehicle fighting positions.
Defensive fortifications are designed to prevent intrusion into the inner works by infantry. For minor defensive locations these may only consist of simple walls and ditches. The design principle is to slow down the advance of attackers to where they can be destroyed by defenders from sheltered positions. Most large fortifications are not a single structure but rather a concentric series of fortifications of increasing strength.
Equipment and vehicles
Combat engineers employ a wide range of transportation vehicles and equipment, and uses weapons unique to the engineers, including those used in land mine warfare.
- Equipment used by combat engineers
Basic combat engineering tools include safe use of:
- driving tools and chopping tools (hammers, mauls, sledges, screwdriver, and bits)
- cutting tools and smoothing tools (saws, chisels, planes, files and rasps, brush-cutting tools, miscellaneous cutting tools)
- drilling tools, boring tools, and countersinking tools
- measuring tools, leveling tools and layout tools (rules, tapes, marking tools, levels, plumb bobs, squares)
- gripping tools, prying tools and twisting tools (pliers, wrenches, bars)
- holding tools, raising tools and grinding tools (vises, clamps, jacks, grinders, and oilstones)
- timber handling tools and climbing tools; digging tools (shovels, posthole diggers, picks, and mattocks)
- portable power tools and trailer-mounted tools (electric tool trailer and generator, portable power tools)
- miscellaneous tools.
- Obstacle breaching
- Minefield breaching devices
- Bomb disposal robots
- Explosives, mines and bombs
- Field-deployable bridges, for example, French EFA and Bailey bridge.
Combat engineering corps
Combat engineers are a key role in all armed forces of the world, and invariably found either closely integrated into the force structure, or even into the combat units of the national troops. In many countries, combat engineers are members of broader military engineering corps or branches. However, some nations have distinct combat engineering corps or branches which are separate from other types of military engineers. The Danish military engineers corps is almost entirely organized into one regiment of combat engineers, simply named Ingeniørregimentet ("The Engineering Regiment"). During the War in Afghanistan and the 2003–2011 Iraq War the US Army tasked its combat engineers with route clearance missions designed to counter rising threats of IEDs. To increase the effectiveness of these units EOD and mechanic teams are typically embedded with the combat engineer platoon. Due to rising IED threats US Army sends some combat engineers rank specialist or higher to complete Explosive Ordnance Clearance Agent training to familiarize themselves with types of unexploded ordnance.
The Basic Field Manual, Engineer Soldier's Handbook, 2 June 1943 (FM 21-105) was written to provide guidance to a new combat engineer in the United States.
- 17th Armored Engineer Battalion
- 19th Combat Engineer Battalion
- Engineer Combat Battalion
- List of combat engineering corps
- Military engineering
- "Engineer Operations". Field Manual 3-34 (PDF). US Army. pp. 1–10 – via usacac.army.mil.
- Cain, Francis M. III (2014). 1111th Engineer Group in the Bulge: The Role of Engineers As Infantry in Airland Battle. Lucknow Books. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-78289-599-2.
- "Operations". U.S. Field Manual 100-5 (PDF). pp. 2–24 – via fs.fed.us. Cite has empty unknown parameter:
- Pike, John. "Chapter 7: Engineers in Close Combat". FM 5-71-2 – via globalsecurity.org.
- "U.S. Army Training and Evaluation Program 5-437-10-MTP, Engineer Platoon, Engineer Company, Engineer Combat Battalion, Corps" (PDF). pp. 1–12 – via ACLU.org.
- "Sapper". army.mil.
- "Sapeur / Sapeuse de combat". forces.ca. Archived from the original on 19 February 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- "French EFA". defense.gouv.fr. Archived from the original on 13 December 2004.
- "Explosive Ordnance Clearance Agent" (PDF). army.mil. US Army. 2005.
- Basic Field Manual, Engineer Soldier's Handbook. US Army. 1943 – via library.unt.edu.